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Political Prisoner PDF Download by Paul Manafort

Political Prisoner book pdf download for free or read online, also Political Prisoner pdf was written by Paul Manafort. Political Prisoner PDF Book Detail Book Name:  Political Prisoner Author:  Paul Manafort Publish date:  16 August 2022 Pages:  384 Genre:  Politics Language:  English Filetype: PDF Political Prisoner Book PDF Summary In the battle against Donald Trump, propaganda was the principal weapon used by the government-corporate-media Establishment. Democrat Party leadership has routinely disseminated accusations from anonymous sources, promoted them by a partisan media, and finally debunked them when the facts became apparent. Nevertheless, the truth had already been revealed by the time it became public. There had already been casualties. Paul Manafort was one of the most prominent casualties. Democratic leaders and Establishment allies worked together with foreign operatives in order to fabricate a completely false narrative about Paul’s supposed conspiracies with pro-Russ

What is the Most Expensive Currency in the World 2022?

 

What is the Most Expensive Currency in the World 2022?


Hello, friends! Now, $1 is about to be equal to ₹75. And €1 has crossed the mark of ₹85. And £1 is more than ₹100. But do you know, more expensive than these currencies is the World's Most Expensive Currency? Can you guess which currency it is?

World's Most Expensive Currency

The world's Most Expensive Currency is Kuwaiti Dinar. 1 Kuwaiti Dinar is almost equal to ₹250. Does the question then arise what is so special in Kuwaiti Dinar? That it has become the most expensive currency in the world. Whereas the US Dollar, the most popular currency in the world, is not as expensive as the Kuwaiti Dinar.

Before talking about the Kuwaiti Dinar, we have to look into the history of Kuwait. You might be shocked to know friends that 70 - 80 years ago, the currency used in Kuwait was issued by the Indian Government. The Reserve Bank of India used to print Kuwait's currency at the time and that currency was named Gulf Rupee.

It was quite similar to the Indian Rupee. The numbering in the Indian Rupee and the Gulf Rupee differed only by a letter. The number of the Gulf Rupee used to start was a 'Z' The specialty of the Gulf Rupee was that it could not be used in India. It was used in foreign only.

The History of Kuwait Currency

The next question to arise here is; Why did Kuwait need to use a currency that was being issued by the Indian Government Friends, the answer to this is hidden in history. For almost 200 years, from 1763 to 1961, the British Empire had control over the Persian Gulf area. In this area, lies the country Kuwait. Kuwait wasn't totally under the control of the British Empire, throughout the years, there were varying degrees of control over Kuwait. Here, the British India Government saw that the economy of Kuwait was quite small.

They didn't see the need to have a new currency for it. It was much easier to use the same currency that was being used in India. So the initial decision was of the British Indian Government to use the same currency. But in 1947, when India got independence, India saw this practice and permitted Kuwait to continue using the Indian Rupee. Till this point, the exact same Indian Rupee was being used in India and Kuwait. Remember, this was the time when Kuwait's economy was small because the Oil Boom hadn't happened yet. Even though oil was discovered in Kuwait in the late 1930s, because of World War II, Kuwait couldn't sell much oil to the rest of the world.

This started happening in the 1960s. But some years after India's Independence, India faced a problem. Of Gold Trafficking. Large scale gold trafficking was happening in the Gulf area, The smugglers would sell the gold in India, They got Indian Rupee in exchange they would then take the Indian Rupees into the Gulf countries to get it exchanged into other foreign currencies. The Indian economy had to suffer huge losses because of this. For this reason, in 1959, the Indian Government decided to introduce a different currency for the Gulf area, called the Gulf Rupee.

It could be converted with the Indian Rupee in a 1:1 ratio, but the Gulf rupee would not be allowed to be used in India. With this, smuggling could be controlled to quite an extent. After this, in 1961, Kuwait got independence from the British, and in 1963, Kuwait becomes the first Arab country, to conduct its Parliamentary elections. And to create a Constitution. By the 1970s, it progressed so well that Kuwait became the most developed country in the area. In fact, in terms of Press Freedom as well, Kuwait becomes one of the top countries at that time.

In the early 1960s, Kuwaiti Dinar is introduced by the new Kuwaiti Government. And it's priced at ₹13.33 = 1 KD. By 1966, Gulf Rupee remains in circulation, but after that, the Indian Government had to devalue the Indian Rupee for several reasons. But because of this devaluation, these Gulf countries are affected And they are forced to create their currencies. Oman, Qatar, and UAE, all these countries create their own currencies after this. In 1975, the exchange rate of the Kuwaiti Dinar is fixed to a basket of currencies. Basically, there are three types of exchange rates, Fixed, Floating, and Mixed.

Fixed means that you fix the exchange rate of your currency with some other currency. And based on that currency's value, the value of your currency fluctuates. The floating exchange rate means that with the supply and demand in the market, the value of the currency will fluctuate. And Mixed is the combination of the two.

All of us know that the US is a bigger economy than the UK. And today, the US is more powerful than the UK. And this is the reason, friends, that despite having the world's most expensive currency, Kuwait is now going through an economic crisis. That started with the Covid-19 pandemic when the oil prices crashed. The oil prices remained low for a significant amount of time, and Kuwait is now at a loss. There is no personal income tax in Kuwait. Also, Kuwait spends a lot of money on the welfare of its citizens. In Kuwait, people get free healthcare, free education, cheap electricity, cheap gasoline, and several benefits and subsidies in addition to these.

But now, the government has no other source of income since the oil prices are so low. The government is trying the people are also demanding that the revenue sources should be diversified. That they come up with other ways to invest in renewable energy. And to stop their dependency on oil. It is to be seen how Kuwait overcomes this crisis in the future.

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